dinsdag 2 september 2014

The Cross (1843) / Bearing The Cross (1846) / Maitland (1868) / Shine On Me (1923) / Let Your Light Shine On Me (1929) / Must Jesus Bear This Cross Alone (1956)

In 1846 Oberlin published George Nelson Allen's  Social and Sabbath Hymn Book, a collection of hymns. One of the hymns in this book, entitled Bearing The Cross, was adapted from  Shall Simon Bear the Cross Alone, whose words were originally written by Thomas Shepherd in 1693.

Thomas Shepherd (1665-1739) wrote this poem about Simon of Cyrene who, according to Matthew 27:32, was compelled to carry Jesus' cross on the way to Golgotha.
The original hymn reads:
Shall Simon bear thy cross alone,
And other saints be free?
Each saint of thine shall find his own
And there is one for me.

Whene'er it falls unto my lot,
Let it not drive me from
My God, let me ne'er be forgot
‘Till thou hast lov'd me home.

Shepherd's poem appeared in a collection entitled Penitential Cries (1693), a collection of thirty-two hymns that was authored by John Mason (1646?-1694). The subtitle states that the collection was "Begun by the author of the Songs of praise and Midnight cry; and carried on by another hand." The "other hand" was apparently Thomas Shepherd. His hymn appears as number 3 under section "XXIX. For Universal Obedience" in the 1859 edition (SEE PIC BELOW)

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The poem was highly modified over centuries to such a degree that Shepherd might be considered the inspiration for the hymn rather than the author.

Here's a publication of the poem (now called "The Cross") from 1843:
From Hymns: designed for the Use of the Second advent band
Published by N. Stevens and H.B. Skinner in Boston 1843

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Many sources suggest that in 1844-1846 the tune of "Maitland" was linked to this hymn by George N. Allen in his Oberlin Social and Sabbath School Hymn Book, which Allen edited, but in this collection the hymn was called "Bearing The Cross".
This hymn does not contain music, at the most the meter (C.M.= Common Metre) is mentioned.

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In the Plymouth Collection (1855) the hymn has yet another title ("Cross And Crown") and  shows that Allen was the author/adapter of the text, not the composer of the tune, and the tune itself was printed without attribution for many years.

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The name "Maitland" appears as early as 1869, in the hymnal book "Songs for the Sanctuary: or hymns and tunes for Christian Worship"

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In "Songs Of Praise" (Lewis Ward Mudge 1890) it is suggested that the tune of "Maitland" was written by Amzi Chapin around 1820.

It also says Thomas Shepherd (1665-1739) wrote the 1st verse in 1692.
Prof George Nelson Allen wrote  (1812-1877) wrote the 2nd and 3rd verse in 1849. (this is not true as we see in the 1843 publication by Stevens and Skinner (see above))
And the Plymouth Collection (1855) delivered the 4th verse (which also isn't true, because the 1855 Plymouth Collection has only 3 verses (see above))

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So, was the tune actually written by George Nelson Allen around 1846, or was it written by Amzi Chapin around 1820 ??

Maybe it was adapted from "Amazing Grace"  ??


"Amazing Grace" was written in 1779 by John Newton, probably as a poem, until 1835 when William Walker assigned Newton's words to a traditional song named "New Britain", which was itself an amalgamation of two melodies ("Gallaher" and "St. Mary") first published in the Columbian Harmony by Charles H. Spilman and Benjamin Shaw (Cincinnati, 1829). Spilman and Shaw, both students at Kentucky's Centre College, compiled their tunebook both for public worship and revivals, to satisfy "the wants of the Church in her triumphal march." Most of the tunes had been previously published, but "Gallaher" and "St. Mary" had not. As neither tune is attributed and both show elements of oral transmission, scholars can only speculate that they are possibly of British origin.

The Originals © by Arnold Rypens - AMAZING GRACE

Further on in this post I have included some versions of "Must Jesus Bear The Cross Alone", containing a part of "Amazing Grace".

For the story behind "Amazing Grace:
SEE NEXT LINK http://jopiepopie.blogspot.nl/2014/09/new-britain-1835-amazing-grace-1900.html

With yet another title "Shine on Me" this hymn appeared in Songs & Spirituals (Chicago: Overton-Hygienic Co., 1921).

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Some verses of “Shine on me”, come from "Bearing The Cross" /“Must Jesus Bear The Cross Alone”, which I have mentioned in the first part of this topic.

But the chorus (“Shine on me” ) comes from a popular  African-American spiritual “Let The Light From The Lighthouse Shine On Me” that was recorded many times during the last century.

The Originals © by Arnold Rypens - SHINE ON ME

The Wiseman Sextet seems to be the first group to record a version of  this double-rooted gospel.

(o) Wiseman Sextet (1923)  (as "Shine on Me")
Recorded July 1923 in New York City.
Released on Rainbow 1093.

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(c) Rev S.J. Worell "Steamboat Bill"  (as "Must Jesus Bear The Cross Alone?")
Recorded December 17, 1926
Released on Vocalion 1071 and Supertone S2239

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Listen here:

(c) Rev E.D. Campbell (1927)  (as "Escape For Your Life")
Rev E.D. Campbell included one chorus of "Shine On "Me" in his sermon "Escape For Your Life")
Recorded November 11, 1927
Released on Victor 21133

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Listen here:

Or here:

(c) Rev Johnny Blakey and Congregation (1928)  (as "Let The Light Shine On me")
Recorded October 11, 1928 in New York City
Released on Okeh 8758

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Listen here:

(c) Ernest Phipps and his Holiness Singers (1928)  (as "Shine On Me")
A.G. Baker, Minnie Phipps, Nora Byrley, unidentified others, voc group; Ernest Phipps, Roland N. Johnson, f; Ethel Baker, p; Ancil L. McVay, md; Eula Johnson, bj; Shirley Jones, g; Alfred G. Karnes, unidentified others, clapping
Recorded October 29, 1928 in Bristol, TN
Released on Bluebird B-5540


This version was also contained on Harry Smith's "Anthology Of American Folk Music"

Listen here: https://oldweirdamerica.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/3-10-shine-on-me.mp3?_=2

(c) Ernest Stoneman's Dixie Mountaineers (1928) (as "There's a Light Lit Up In Galilee")
Recorded October 31, 1928 in Bristol, TN
Recorded during the famous Bristol Sessions


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Listen here:

(c) Blind Willie Johnson 1929 (as "Let Your Light Shine on Me")
Recorded December 10, 1929 in New Orleans.
Released on Columbia 14490-D

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Listen here:

(c) Rev. J.L. Hendrix (1930)  (as"Let Your Light Shine For Jesus")
Recorded October 27, 1930 in Chicago
Released on Vocalion 1595

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Listen here:

(c) Famous Garland Jubilee Singers (=Bryant’s Jubilee Quartet) (1931)  (as "Shine on Me")
Recorded March 19, 1931 in New York City.
Released on Banner 32433, Oriole 8135, Perfect 0204, Conqueror 8358 and Romeo 5135. 

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Listen here:

(c) Cliff Carlisle Quartet (1936)  (as"Shine on Me")
Cliff Carlisle + Bill Carlisle + Sonny Boy Tommy Carlisle and Louis Carlisle
Recorded June 16, 1936 Hotel Charlotte, 237 West Trade St., Charlotte, NC
Released on Bluebird B-6855

Listen here:

(c) Fisk Jubilee Singers (1940)  (as"Shine on Me")
Recorded on May 26, 1940 for WSM Radio Studios in Nashville Tenn.

Listen here:

(c) Lead Belly (1940) (as "Let It Shine on Me")
Huddie Ledbetter: vocal and guitar.
Recorded August 23, 1940
Released on "The Library Of Congress Recordings Vol 3" (Rounder-label)

Listen here:

As you can hear Leadbelly also includes a fragment of "Amazing Grace"
As I said earlier on the tune of "Must Jesus Bear This Cross Alone" is very similar to the tune of "Amazing Grace".

The Originals © by Arnold Rypens - AMAZING GRACE

More groups that have incorporated parts of "Amazing Grace":

(c) Soul Stirrers (1956)  (as "Must Jesus Bear This Cross Alone")
Included is one chorus from "Amazing Grace"
Soul Stirrers sing "Must Jesus Bear The Cross Alone", featuring Sam Cooke and Paul Foster.
Recorded February 2, 1956 at Master Recorders in Hollywood.
Released in 1962 on the SAR-label (SAR 124)
Re-released in 1969 on Specialty 921.


Listen here:

(c) Lonnie Donegan (1961)  (as "Light From The Lighthouse")


Listen here:

(c) Seekers (1965)  (as "The Light From The Lighthouse")


Listen here:

(c) Clarence Fountain (1971) (as "Must Jesus Bear The Cross Alone")
In a medley with "Amazing Grace".
And on the B-side is "Precious Lord", which has a tune, that was derived from "Must Jesus Bear The Cross Alone" and so from "Amazing Grace" ??


(c) Ry Cooder (1977)  (as "Let Your Light Shine On Me")
Live in Hamburg in 1977.


Listen here:

(c) Mud Boy and the Neutrons (1992)

Jim Dickinson and friends recorded this in 1992 and it was released in 2001 on the next album


Listen here:

(c) Nick Cave (2006)  (as "Shine On Me")

Released on "THE HARRY SMITH PROJECT: THE ANTHOLOGY OF AMERICAN FOLK MUSIC REVISITED", 50 years after Harry Smith's original release of "The Anthology Of American Folk Music"


Listen here:

(c) The Fireman (=Paul McCartney and Martin Glover) (2008)

Electric Arguments - Wikipedia



Many years later Thomas A. Dorsey would use the melody as the setting to his own hymn, Precious Lord, Take My Hand, which became popular through its association with Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement.
Sometimes Dorsey is shown as the composer, sometimes as the arranger or adapter of Allen's composition.

The Originals © by Arnold Rypens - PRECIOUS LORD, TAKE MY HAND

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