dinsdag 29 augustus 2017

Glühwürmchen-Idyll 1902 / Dance of the Fireflies (1904) / Glow Worm (1907)

"Das Glühwürmchen", with music by Paul Lincke and German lyrics by Heinz Bolten-Backers, was introduced on March 31,1902 in the Apollo Theater in Berlin, in the operetta Lysistrata.
Rhythmically, the song is in the form of a gavotte.


In the operetta, it is performed as a trio with three female solo voices (Caecilie Carola, Emma Malkowska and Kathi Herold playing the roles of Lysistrata, Chrysis and Bacchys) singing alternately and the women's chorus joining in the refrain.


The song, with its familiar chorus, was translated into English and became an American popular song. It was originally translated into English by Lilla Cayley Robinson, in the early 20th century, and was used in the 1907 Broadway musical The Girl Behind The Counter.
American lyricist Johnny Mercer later expanded and greatly revised Robinson's lyrics, for his 1949 recording. The 1952 Mills Brothers cover became a million-seller, and subsequently has been performed by several others.

The Glow-Worm - Wikipedia

(o) Berliner Elite-Orchester (1902)  (as "Glühwürmchen-Idyll")
Recorded 1902 in Berlin
Matrix 1380x
Released on Gramophone Record # 40573

Berliner Elite-Orchester - Glühwürmchen-Idyll Aus "Lysistrata" (Shellac, 10", 78 RPM, Single Sided) | Discogs


(c) Kaiser Franz Garde Grenadier Regiments (1902/1903 ?) (as "Glühwürmchenidyll")
Recorded in Berlin
Matrix 213y
Released on Gramophone Record # 40501


(c) Guido Gialdini (1902) (as "Glühwürmchen-Idyll")
Recorded 1902 in Berlin
Matrix 2887b
Released on Gramophone Record # 49302



Also recorded in 1905 in Berlin
Matrix 4036g
Released on Gramophone Record # 49325

Listen here:

(c) Johannes Semfke (1904) (as "Wenn die Nacht sich niedersenkt (Glühwürmchen)"
Recorded January 1904 in Berlin
Released on Edison Cylinder # 15054



(c) Robert Leonhardt (1904)
Recorded in 1904 in Berlin
Released on Columbia # 40062 and D3166


(c) Edward F. Rubsam (1904) (as "Dance of the Fireflies")
Recorded 1904 in New York
Released on Columbia 1879
Also released on Oxford 1879


Also released on United A232

Listen here:

(c) Franz Porten (1907)  (as "Glühwürmchen Lied")
Released on Homophon Record # 1735

Franz Porten

Listen to a sample here: http://media.slub-dresden.de/fon/snp/b/006298/fon_snp_b_006298_02_hp.mp3

After the song was translated into English by Lilla Cayley Robinson and introduced by May Naudain in 1907 in the Broadway Musical: The Girl Behind the Counter, 2 versions   topped the US Charts.


(c) Lucy Isabelle Marsh (1908) (Nr 1 USA)
Recorded in 1907 in New York
Released in 1908 on Columbia 3791 reissued as A-435
Also reissued on Harmony A-435 and Diamond A-435

Columbia matrix 3791. The glow worm / Lucy Isabelle Marsh - Discography of American Historical Recordings

Listen here:

Or to a sample here:

1908: "Take Me Out with the Crowd" ⋆ Archeophone Records

(c) Victor Orchestra (1908) (Nr 1 USA)
Recorded March 12, 1908 in Camden, New Jersey
Released on Victor 5408

Reissued on Victor 17227

Victor matrix B-6005. Glow worm / Victor Orchestra - Discography of American Historical Recordings

78 RPM - Victor Orchestra - Glow Worm – Intermezzo / In Lover's Lane - Victor - USA - 17227

(c) Arthur Pryor's Band (1908)
Recorded September 23, 1908 in Camden, New Jersey
Released on Victor 35015

Victor matrix C-6450. The glow-worm : Intermezzo / Arthur Pryor's Band - Discography of American Historical Recordings

Listen here:

(c) Elise Stevenson (1908)
Recorded December 17, 1908
Released on Victor 5657

Victor matrix B-6632. The glow-worm / Elise Stevenson - Discography of American Historical Recordings

(c) Elizabeth Wheeler (1909)
Recorded October 22, 1909
Released on Victor 5657 and also on Victor 16932

Victor matrix B-8314. The glow-worm : Idyll / Elizabeth Wheeler - Discography of American Historical Recordings

(c) Prince's Orchestra (1909)
Recorded May 1909 in New York
Released on Columbia A-711
Also released on Standard A-711 and United A-711


Columbia matrix 4093. The glow worm / Prince's Orchestra - Discography of American Historical Recordings

Listen here: The Glow Worm - Prince%27s Orchestra - Lincke.mp3

(c) Hofkapellmeister Gille (around 1910)
Released on Pathe Disc # 15235

In 1910 Ballard Macdonald and Harry Carroll wrote "Nix On The Glow Worm, Lena", sort of a parody and using elements of Paul Lincke's "Glow Worm".
It was introduced in the Broadway Musical "Ziegfeld Follies of 1910"



The same year Ada Jones and Billy Murray recorded versions of that song

(c) Ada Jones (1910)  (as "Nix On The Glow Worm, Lena")


Listen here:

Billy Murray (1910) (as "Nix On The Glow Worm, Lena")

Listen here: http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/mp3s/3000/3798/cusb-cyl3798d.mp3


In 1913 the great ballerina Anna Pavlova performed an orchestrated version of "The Glow-Worm".

The Pavlova Gavotte - a social ballroom dance 1913

Subsequently versions were released using the title "Pavlowa Gavotte".

(c) Prince's Orchestra (1914) (as "Pavlowa Gavotte")
Recorded April 28, 1914 in New York
Released on Columbia A5566

Columbia matrix 36942. Pavlowa gavotte / Prince's Orchestra - Discography of American Historical Recordings

(c) Victor Military Band (1914) (as "Pavlowa Gavotte")
Recorded September 3, 1914 in Camden, new Jersey
Released on Victor 35403


Listen here:

(c) Fred Kornau 1915
Recorded March 12, 1915 in New York



(c) Victor Salon Orchestra 1925 (as"The Glow-Worm")
Recorded August 18, 1925

78 RPM - Victor Salon Orchestra - The Glow-Worm / Nola - Victor - USA - 19758

(c) Jack Hylton (1928)  (as "Glow Worm")
Recorded August 30, 1928 in London
Released on HMV B-5525 (UK)
Also released on Electrola EG 1023 (Germany)

Listen here:

Recorded again on November 28, 1933 in London
Released on Decca F-3857

Listen here:


(c) Lunapark-Orchester (1929) ( as ""Glühwürmchen-Idyll")
Recorded February 1929
Matrix Be7916
Released on Odeon O-2799

Listen here:

In 1929 Paul Lincke conducted an orchestra playing his own composition.

(c) Paul Lincke mit Grossem Symphonie-Orchester 1929 (as "Glühwürmchen-Idyll")
(Mitglieder der Staatskapelle Berlin)
Recorded March 28, 1929
Matrix Be 8103
Released on Odeon O-11298
Also released on Gloria 10543

(c) Otto Dobrindt (1929)  (as "Glühwürmchen-Idyll")
Recorded April 8, 1929 in Berlin
Matrix 〇2-21335
Released on Parlophon P 9543-II


(c) Tempo-Special-Orchester (& Paul Hagedorn) (1935)  (as "Glühwürmchen-Idyll")
Released on Brilliant #349 and also on Tempo #349

(c) Adalbert Lutter mit seinen Konzertsolisten (1937)  (as "Glühwürmchen-Idyll")
Recorded April 1937 in Berlin
Released on Telefunken A 2235

78 RPM - Adalbert Lutter - Glühwürmchen-Idyll / Toselli - Serenade - Telefunken - Germany - A 2235

Glühwürmchen-Idyll / Toselli-Serenade by Tanzorchester Adalbert Lutter (Single): Reviews, Ratings, Credits, Song list - Rate Your Music

Listen here:

(c) Erna Sack (1937)
Recorded May 26, 1937 in Berlin
Released on Telefunken E 2273


78 RPM - Erna Sack - Gluhwurmchen-Idyll / Gold Und Silber - Telefunken - Germany - E 2273

And off course in 1946 Spike Jones recorded his own parody on "The Glow Worm"

(c) Spike Jones (1946)  (as "The Glow Worm")

78 RPM - Spike Jones And His City Slickers - The Glow-Worm / Hawaiian War Chant (Ta-Hu-Wa-Hu-Wai) - RCA Victor - USA - 20-1893

Listen here:

Already on November 30, 1944 Spike Jones introduced his parody in Bing Crosby Radio Show in the Kraft Music Hall.


And in 1948 Bing Crosby sang a version of "Glow Worm" in one of his radio shows, that already laid the foundation for the future Johnny Mercer / Mills Brothers versions.


Listen here:

In 1949 Johnny Mercer revised the Lilla Cayley Robinson lyrics most inventively and recorded his version for the Capitol-label.

(c) Johnny Mercer 1949 (as "The Glow Worm")
with The Blue Reys (vocal group: Jimmy Joyce, Tom Kenny, Ralph Hall, Blossom Dearie) and with Alvino Rey and his Orchestra.
Recorded in  LA, December 23, 1947
Released on Capitol 15412

Re-issued in 1952 on Capitol F2248 in the wake of the Mills Brothers cover-version
This re-issue was a # 30 Hit in the USA.

78 RPM - Johnny Mercer - The Glow Worm / Conversation While Dancing - Capitol - New Zealand - CP192

45cat - Johnny Mercer And The Blue Boys - The Glow Worm / The New Ashmolean - Capitol - USA - F2248

Listen here

In 1952 the Mills Brothers exactly copied the Johnny Mercer-cover and made a Millionseller out of their version. also reaching the Topspot of the US charts.

(c) Mills Brothers (1952)  (as "The Glow Worm")
Recorded July 7, 1952.
Released on Decca 28384

Mills Brothers* And Hal McIntyre And His Orchestra - After All / The Glow-Worm (Shellac) at Discogs

Listen here:

In 1964, Johnny Mercer wrote some new Christmas lyrics for a Bing Crosby TV special.

(c) Bing Crosby and Dorothy Collins (1965)
Aired on December 25, 1965 in The Bing Crosby Show Christmas Special



In 1964 Allan Sherman parodied the song as "Grow, Mrs. Goldfarb".


Listen here

(c) Kermit the Frog (1971)
From the Muppet show 1971

Listen here:

In 1992 Mel Tormé sang his own version of the Christmas version of "Glow Worm".


More (old) versions here:

Paul Lincke | Objekte und Geschichten | Stadtmuseum Berlin

And even more versions here:




zondag 20 augustus 2017

College Hornpipe (1766) / Sailor's Hornpipe / Jack's The Lad (1905) / Popeye the Sailorman (1933) / Tubular Bells (1973)

The famous tune of the Popeye the Sailorman cartoon is based on the "Sailor's Hornpipe".
It was originally titled the "College Hornpipe" and became known as the "Sailor's Hornpipe" through its association with the performance of the hornpipe dance, typically performed on the stage in nautical costume.
Most likely originating in England, "Sailor's Hornpipe" was imported to North America where it entered traditional repertoire and became fairly widely known, still with its nautical connotations--so strong was the association, in fact, that it was selected as the theme song of a popular mid-20th century animated cartoon character, Popeye the Sailorman.






One of the earliest printings of the tune appears on page 13 in a volume entitled "Compleat Tutor for the German Flute", published by Jonathan Fentum, London, c. 1766

In America it was published somewhere at the end of the 18th Century in the music manuscript copybook of Henry Livingston, Jr. (as "Colledge Hornpipe", set for the German flute).


Listen here:


In 1786 it was published on page 12 of Henry Beck’s Flute Book


John Philip Sousa's "Jack Tar March", written in 1903, features "The Sailor's Hornpipe" tune in one of its segments.


In 1903 Sousa had recorded 3 takes that were released on Victor 2419


Here's a take from 1905


Listen here ("Sailor's Hornpipe" is at 1 min and 19 sec and again at 2 min and 5 sec)

In 1903 "Jack Tar" was also recorded by the Edison Grand Concert Band,
Released on Edison Gold Moulded Record: 8524


Listen here:  http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/mp3s/2000/2692/cusb-cyl2692d.mp3

Somewhere between 1903 and 1905 a Columbia Band recorded a version, that was released on a Standard Disc Record # 1587


Listen here ("Sailor's Hornpipe" is at 1 min and 32 sec in the YT below)

Somewhere between 1901-1907 Lord Lyndoch recorded a version of "The sailor's Hornpipe"

Listen here: (the "Popeye" part starts at 1 min and 15 sec on the soundfile of the next link)


The tune is also one of the movements ("Jack's The Lad") in Sir Henry Wood's "Fantasia on British Sea Songs", a medley of British sea songs arranged by Sir Henry Wood in 1905 to mark the centenary of the Battle of Trafalgar. For many years it was seen as an indispensable item at the BBC's Last Night of the Proms concert.

In 1906 Leopold Moeslein recorded "Sailor's Hornpipe" for Edison
Released June 1906 on Edison Gold Moulded Record # 9293


Edison release Leopold Moeslein

Listen here: http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/mp3s/3000/3076/cusb-cyl3076d.mp3

(c) Charles D'Almaine (1909) (as "Sailor's Hornpipe")
Released on Indestructible Record #1108


Listen here: http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/mp3s/3000/3992/cusb-cyl3992d.mp3

In 1921 Francis Quinn recorded a similarly titled "Sailor's Hornpipe", which has another tune


Listen here:


(c) Jasper Bisbee (1921)  (as "College Hornpipe")
Recorded November 24, 1923
Released on Edison 51382

Listen here:

(c) John Baltzell (1927)  (as "Sailor's Hornpipe")
Recorded March 1927 in New York
Released on Banner 2159, Oriole 945, Paramount 3017, Broadway 8051, Regal 8392, Domino 0195




Listen here:

In 1928 the song Barnacle Bill the Sailor also contained a fragment of the "Sailor's Hornpipe".


Here´s Frank Luther's 1928 version ("Sailor's Hornpipe" is at 55 sec)

In the first Fleischer Popeye cartoon, Popeye the Sailor (1933), "The Sailor's Hornpipe" tune was used in the cartoon's theme. And "Barnacle Bill" was used as the recurring theme for the Bluto character.

A later Fleischer Popeye cartoon, "Beware of Barnacle Bill" (1935), is a mock operetta based around a toned-down version of the song "Barnacle Bill The Sailor".

From then on the "Sailor's Hornpipe" tune was played in all of the Popeye cartoons, usually as the first part of the opening credits theme, which then segued into an instrumental of "I'm Popeye the Sailor Man".

In 1933 Groucho Marx does the traditional dance to this number at one point, as part of the opening number in the film, Duck Soup.

(c) The Tornados (1962) (as "Pop'eye twist")
the B-side of their very first 45.


(c) Spotnicks (1963)  (as "Sailor's Hornpipe (Bach Goes To Sea)")

(c) Bill Monroe and his Bluegrass Boys (1963)
Recorded March 20, 1963 in Nashville
released in 1965 on the album "Bluegrass Instrumentals"



(c) Mike Oldfield (1973)  (as "Sailor' s Hornpipe")
The Sailor's Hornpipe is the finale of part two of Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells. Most likely Mike Oldfield followed Henry Wood's 1905 "Jack's The Lad" version.

zondag 13 augustus 2017

Good Morning To All (1893) / Happy Birtday To You (1911)


"Happy Birthday to You" is one of the most sung songs in the world.
The melody comes from the song "Good Morning to All", which has traditionally been attributed to American sisters Patty and Mildred J. Hill in 1893, although the claim that the sisters composed the tune is disputed (SEE NOTES AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE)

Mildred, who taught and played organ, wrote the music. Her sister Patty, who was head of the Louisville Experimental Kindergarten School in Kentucky, wrote the lyrics to this children's song to be sung in class, first thing in the morning.
In 1896 the song was published by Clayton F. Summy, Co in Chicago, on page 3 of the book "Song Stories For The Kindergarten".

It´s on page 19 of the next PDF-file


It is likely that teachers and students spontaneously adapted the published version of "Good Morning to All" to celebrate birthdays in the classroom, changing the lyrics to "Happy Birthday" in the process.
The complete text of "Happy Birthday to You" first appeared in print as the final four lines of Edith Goodyear Alger's poem "Roy's Birthday", published in her book "A Primer of Work and Play", copyrighted by D. C. Heath in 1901, with no reference to the words being sung.


From then on "Happy Birthday" with the "Good Morning Melody" became increasingly popular and was sung on almost everybody's birthday and was also used in cartoons, movies and musicals, without crediting the Hill sisters.

Jessica Hill (sister of Patty and Mildred) no longer endured the uncrediting use of the Hill-melody and sued all these Happy Birthday profits successfully, by demonstrating the undeniable similarities between "Good Morning to All" and "Happy Birthday to You" in court, Jessica was able to secure the copyright of "Happy Birthday to You" for her sisters in 1934. The Chicago-based music publisher Clayton F. Summy Company, working with Jessica Hill, published and copyrighted "Happy Birthday" in 1935.
A few years later, Summy’s company was bought out by a New York accountant, John Sengstack, who renamed it Birch Tree Ltd. They held on to the publishing for “Happy Birthday” until 1988, when Warner-Chappell, the largest music publisher in the world, purchased Birch Tree for $25 million. Today the song brings in about $2 million in royalties annually, with proceeds split between Warner-Chappell and the Hill Foundation.
(Both sisters died unmarried and childless, so the money has presumably been going to charity or to nephew Archibald Hill, ever since Patty Hill passed away in 1946.)

But American law professor Robert Brauneis, who extensively researched the song, concluded in 2010 that "It is almost certainly no longer under copyright".

"Copyright and the World’s Most Popular Song" by Robert Brauneis

In 2013, based in large part on Brauneis's research, Jennifer_Nelson's "Good Morning to You Productions", a company producing a documentary about "Good Morning to All", sued Warner/Chappell (who had boughts all the rights to the song in 1988) for falsely claiming copyright to the song.


On July 28, 2015, one day prior to a scheduled ruling, Nelson's attorneys Betsy Manifold and Mark Rifkin presented new evidence which they argued was conclusive proof that the song was in the public domain.
In 1927 a book "The Everyday Song Book" was published which contained both "Good Morning To All"  and Happy Birthday".
A line of text below the title said: "Special permission through courtesy of The Clayton F Summy Co".


As this was the 12th edition the lawyers tried to find earlier editions, and in the archives of The University of Pittsburgh, they came upon the fourth edition, published in 1922, which included the famous Happy Birthday song without any copyright notice. This book, plaintiffs believe, establishes that "Happy Birthday" lyrics were dedicated to the public years before the copyright registration that Warner/Chappell is relying upon was made.

In September 2015, a federal judge declared that the Warner/Chappell copyright claim was invalid, ruling that the copyright registration applied only to a specific piano arrangement of the song, and not to its lyrics and melody. So "Happy Birthday" is in the public domain.
Here's the original filing from RECAP:


The origin of the lyrics for “Happy Birthday” coupled with the tune goes back even further than 1922. The earliest publication of the words (coupled with the tune) were printed in a 1911 song book called "The Elementary Worker and His Work".
No author was credited, though the book mentioned that the song was to be sung to the tune of “Good Morning.”


Before "Happy Birthday" was copyrighted it was used freely, as in this 1931 Mickey Mouse cartoon

 "Happy Birthday To You" was also sung in Bosko's Party, a Warner Bros. cartoon of 1932, where a chorus of animals sings it twice through.

"Happy Birthday To You" was sung to Shirley Temple on her 6th Birthday on April 23, 1934.

And the same year it was sung to Shirley in the movie "Take A Bow"

And when the song was published the recordings came in a fast pace

(c) Ray Nichols and his Four Towers Orch (1935)
Recorded April 1, 1935, New York
Released on Bluebird B-5921



Listen here: RayNicholsOrchestra78rpmCollection/06 Happy Birthday To You.mp3

(c) Okeh Novelty (1938)


(c) Decca Band (1938)



(c) Lang Thompson & His Orch (1940)



(c) Raymond Scott and his New Orchestra (1940)


(c) Tommy Tucker 1946



Listen here:

(c) Bing Crosby (1947)
Recorded March 28, 1947 in Los Angeles
Released on Decca 24273


This was released in 1948 as part of a 4 shellacs album : Auld Lang Syne (Decca A-663)



Listen here:

On Februay 27, 1936 Bing had already sung the song on his Kraft Music Hall radio show (along with Lotte Lehmann and Ann Sothern)


(c) Johnny Long (1948)




(c) Dick "Two Ton" Baker And The Maple City Four (1950)


"Happy Birthday, Mr. President" as sung by actress and singer Marilyn Monroe on May 19, 1962, for President John F. Kennedy at a celebration of his 45th birthday, 10 days before the actual date (May 29)

On September 7, 1963 The Beatles recorded "Happy Birthday Dear Saturday Club" at London's Playhouse Theatre.
It was aired on October 5, 1963 to celebrate the 5th anniversary of BBC's "Saturday Club" programme.



In 1968 The Idle Race plays a portion of "Happy Birthday" on the "Birthday Party" album.


In 1969, the song had its longest-distance broadcast when the crew of the orbiting Apollo 9 sang Happy Birthday to NASA director Christopher Kraft.
The message and song starts at 17 min and 30 sec in the next MP3

Listen here: https://ia601409.us.archive.org/22/items/Apollo9Highlights/Apollo9Highlights.mp3

(c) Aaron Copland (1969)  (as "Happy Anniversary")

Based on the well-known "Happy Birthday" tune, this short piece was originally part of a group of variations by famous composers commissioned for the Philadelphia Orchestra's seventieth anniversary. The occasion included President Nixon's presentation of the Medal of Freedom to Eugene Ormandy. It has since been performed for other occasions, among them several Copland birthday celebrations.

On August 21, 1969 Elvis Presley sang "Happy Birtday To You" in concert in Las Vegas for James Burton.


In 1986 Ernie sang "Happy Birthday to U" in episode 2234 of Sesame Street.


NOTES: The lyrics of two songs are certainly similar to "Good Morning to All" / "Happy Birthday To You", in that they involve heavy repetition of a simple greeting.
The first song "Happy Greeting to All" was published in 1859 by Horace Waters in "The Sabbath School Bell"


The refrain is lyrically very similar:
"Happy Greeting to all! Happy Greeting to all! Happy Greeting, happy greeting, happy greeting to all!"
But the melody bears no resemblance at all. Listen for youself on the next link:


And the second song "A Happy New Year" was published in 1877 in the book "The story of the Jubilee Singers : with their songs" (Song # 92 on page 213)

The first lines of "A Happy New Year" are also very similar lyrically
"What a happy new year! What a happy new year! What a happy, what a happy, what a happy new year!"
But here also the melody is different.